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National Science Foundation Programs Supporting Learning and Teaching in the Mathematical Sciences, Sunday, 9:00 a.m. to 10:20 a.m., Lloyd E. Douglas, Division of Mathematical Sciences, National Science Foundation; and Daniel P. Maki, Elizabeth J. Teles, and Lee L. Zia, Division of Undergraduate Education, National Science Foundation. A number of NSF divisions offer a variety of grant programs that support innovations in learning and teaching in the mathematical sciences. These programs will be discussed along with examples of successful projects. Anticipated budget highlights and other new initiatives for the next fiscal year will also be presented.
Making the Connection Between Research and Teaching in Undergraduate Mathematics Education, Sunday, 9:00 a.m. to 10:20 a.m., Chris Rasmussen, San Diego State University; Marilyn P. Carlson, Arizona State University; and David E. Meel, Bowling Green State University. This session of invited speakers will discuss several chapters from a forthcoming MAA Notes volume on research in undergraduate mathematics education, edited by Carlson and Rasmussen. Chapters from the forthcoming book include papers written by mathematics education researchers and by mathematicians discussing topics in the undergraduate curriculum as well as overarching issues in undergraduate mathematics education, with emphasis on the implications of that research in the teaching of undergraduate mathematics courses. The panel session will feature the following three presentations, followed by discussion and questions from the audience: Guershon Harel, University of California San Diego, and Stacy Brown, University of Illinois at Chicago, Mathematical induction: Cognitive and instructional considerations; Annie and John Selden, New Mexico State University, Overcoming students difficulties in learning to understand and construct proofs; and Keith H. Weber, Rutgers University and Sean P. Larsen, Portland State University, Teaching and learning group theory. The session is sponsored by SIGMAA on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education.
Tenure (and Promotion)You Know You Want It, Sunday, 9:00 a.m. to 10:20 a.m., James E. Hamblin, Shippensburg University, and Kimberly A. Roth, Juniata College. Once you get your tenure-track job, the next step is to get tenure and promotion. Tenure and promotion policies, of course, vary from institution to institution, but there are some general things you can do to help the process go smoothly. Panelists will discuss their advice for people on the tenure-track and their experiences on it. The session is co-sponsored by the Young Mathematicians Network and Project NExT.
Project NExT/Young Mathematicians Network Poster Session, Sunday, 2:15 p.m. to 4:15 p.m., organized by Kevin E. Charlwood, Washburn University, and Michael C. Axtell, Wabash College. Junior mathematicians who are no more than five years beyond their Ph.D. are invited by Project NExT and the Young Mathematicians Network to submit abstracts for the session. The poster size will be 48 (length) by 36 (height). Posters and materials for posting pages on the posters will be provided onsite. Applications should be submitted to Kevin Charlwood, email@example.com, or Mike Axtell firstname.lastname@example.org, by Friday, December 7, 2007.
Mathematics and Hollywood: A Conversation with Mathematical Hollywood Writers and Mathematics Faculty, Sunday, 2:15 p.m. to 3:35 p.m., Christopher Goff, University of the Pacific, and Sarah J. Greenwald, Appalachian State University. Recently, Hollywood has expanded its use of mathematical themes. A parallel trend involves linking these "mathematical moments" to educational initiatives. Our panel will furnish insiders' perspectives on the effect of mathematical training on the creative process and the challenges of representing mathematics and mathematicians in Hollywood.We will also begin a critical discussion about how Hollywood affects mathematics education and public perceptions. As schedules allow, planned panel members include mathematical writers as well as mathematical consultants: David M. Bressoud, Macalester College, is a NUMB3RS worksheet author; Ken Keeler has a doctorate in applied mathematics and has won Writers Guild and Emmy Awards for his work on The Simpsons and Futurama, Twentieth Century Fox; Alice Silverberg, University of California Irvine, has consulted for film and television; Eric Weisstein, Wolfram Research, consults for NUMB3RS; and Jeff Westbrook has a doctorate in computer science and is currently a writer for The Simpsons, Twentieth Century Fox. The panel is sponsored by SIGMAA on Mathematics and the Arts.
What Every Chair Should Know About NSF Funding, Sunday, 2:15 p.m. to 3:35 p.m., Catherine M. Murphy, Purdue University Calumet, and Daniel P. Maki, Indiana University. Dan Maki will speak about curriculum funding through DUE and a yet-to-be-named representative from DMS will speak about research funding in this session for chairs. There will time available for questions and conversation with the presenters.
How to Interview for a Job in the Mathematical Sciences, Sunday, 2:15 p.m. to 3:35 p.m., organized by David C. Manderscheid, University of Iowa. This session is aimed at Ph.D. students and at recent graduates. An overview of the employment process will be given with ample opportunity for participants to ask questions. The emphasis will be on the portion of the employment process from interviewing through accepting an offer. Questions that will be addressed include: How do employers conduct interviews? How can you best prepare for these interviews? How do employers choose to whom they will make offers? How do you negotiate once you have an offer? How do you choose among competing offers? The panelists are Allen Butler, Daniel H. Wagner Associates, Inc.; Sharon M. Clarke, Pepperdine University; James H. Freeman, Cornell College; Sarah Ann Stewart, Belmont University; and David C. Manderscheid. The session is cosponsored by the MAA Committee on Graduate Students and The Young Mathematicians Network.
Engaging Students in College Mathematics Courses, Sunday, 3:50 p.m. to 5:10 p.m., Juli D'Ann Ratheal, West Texas A&M University. Most colleges and universities encounter problems associated with retention and passing rates in mathematics courses, especially core courses. The emphasis of this panel discussion will be how to engage students and enhance their learning experience in mathematics courses. Instructional strategies designed to increase the level of student engagement and conceptual understanding by establishing learning communities through collaborative activities and projects will be explored. Data which measured students attitudes toward specific pedagogical methods used in college algebra classes were collected over a three-year period. These data will be reviewed and discussed by the panelists, who have worked collaboratively for a number of years to reform mathematics courses by implementing instructional strategies which increase student engagement and make course content more meaningful. Panelists will include James A. M. Epperson, Unversity of Texas-Arlington; Winifred A. Mallam, Texas Woman's University; Kimberly M. Childs, Stephen F. Austin State University; Bowen Brawner, Tarleton State University; Rebecca Walls, West Texas A&M University; and Juli D'Ann Ratheal.
Tracking Our Students from College Algebra to Calculus:Where They Come From, Where They Go, and Where They Don't, Sunday, 3:50 p.m. to 5:50 p.m., organized by Sheldon P. Gordon, Farmingdale State College. A growing body of evidence shows that only a very small percentage of the approximately 1,000,000 students who take college algebra and related courses each year ever go on to start calculus, which is the focus of most of these courses.In this session, the panelists will discuss the results of student tracking studies and their implications, including comparisons of students who have taken prerequisite courses in high school or in college, what courses students take after taking college algebra or precalculus courses, and where the students who take calculus have come from. Panelists include Barbara E. Edwards, Oregon State University; Steven R. Dunbar, University of Nebraska; Aimee Ellington, Virginia Commonwealth University; Scott Herriott, Maharishi International University; Mercedes McGowen, William Rainey Harper College; and William A. Waller, University of Houston-Downtown. The panel is sponsored by the MAA committee on Curriculum Renewal Across the First Two Years (CRAFTY).
Flatland: The Movie, Sunday, 5:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m., organized by Thomas F. Banchoff, Brown University. This half-hour animated film produced in 2007 was inspired by Edwin A. Abbott's classic novel, Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions. Set in a world of only two dimensions inhabited by sentient geometrical shapes, the story follows Arthur Square and his ever-curious granddaughter, Hex. When a mysterious visitor arrives from Spaceland, Arthur and Hex must come to terms with the truth of the third dimension, risking dire consequences from the evil Circles that have ruled Flatland for a thousand years. A discussion will follow concerning its use in classroom teaching.
Interview with Robert Schneider, Sunday, 6:30 p.m. to 7:30 p.m. Schneider is founder and lead singer for the indie rock group Apples in Stereo and a mathematics student. In a surprising move, the interview is Schneider's all-time favorite mathematician, Leonhard Euler. This is the perfect cap to the year-long celebration of the 300th anniversary of Euler's birth. They will discuss logarithmic scales (including Schneider's development of a non-Pythagorean musical scale); Schneider's recent results in number theory; "New Magnetic Wonder", the Apples in Stereo's new CD; and, hopefully, an acoustic set.
MOVED FROM TUES TO SUN Dancing Mathematics and the Mathematics of Dance, Sunday 7:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m., presented by Sarah-Marie Belcastro, Smith College, Karl Schaffer, DeAnza College. This session will be a lecture/demonstration/performance that will consist of brief introductions of our mathematical and dance backgrounds, descriptions of the connections we see between mathematics and dance, and video clips of our separate choreography giving explanations of how these exhibit mathematics in dance, along with the performance of three very short mathematical dances we have created together (including at least one proof!).
Proposal Writing Workshop for Grant Applications to the NSF Division of Undergraduate Education, Monday, 9:00 a.m. to 10:30 a.m., Daniel P. Maki, Elizabeth J. Teles, and Lee L. Zia, Division of Undergraduate Education, National Science Foundation. Presenters will describe the general NSF grant proposal process and consider particular details relevant to programs in the Division of Undergraduate Education. This interactive session will feature a series of read/think/share/report exercises built around a series of short excerpts from sample proposals.
Outreach Programs For Underrepresented Populations in Mathematics, Monday, 9:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m., Elizabeth Yanik, Emporia State University; Jennifer Hontz, Meredith College; and Kathleen Sullivan, Seattle University. This poster session is designed to showcase successful outreach mathematics programs that encourage students from underrepresented populations to continue their study of mathematics. The participants in such programs range in grade level from elementary students to undergraduates. It is expected that posters representing a wide variety of programs will be displayed. Possible programming formats include after school clubs, special conferences, mentoring programs, and summer camps. Those who are in the process of constructing an outreach program are especially encouraged to attend this session to acquire valuable insights and tips for designing and implementing a mathematics outreach project. We solicit abstracts from all those involved with such outreach work. For example, successful grant awardees from both the Tensor Foundation and Summa Programs might be particularly interested in participating. The session is sponsored by the Women and Mathematics Network. The deadline for submissions is Friday, December 7, 2007. Applications should be submitted to Betsy Yanik, email@example.com.
Exciting, Surprising, and Satisfying: Why and How to Teach
Proof, Monday, 9:00 a.m. to 10:20 a.m., Carol S.
Schumacher, Kenyon College, and Diane Herrmann,
University of Chicago. CUPM has been considering the tricky point
in the early to middle of the undergraduate mathematics curriculum
where students first encounter proof in a serious way. There are
issues of both salesmanship (This is hard. Is it really necessary?
Is it worthwhile?) and tactics (how do we help our students to learn
to engage the mathematics on their own?) Panelists will discuss
various successful strategies for helping students through this
difficult phase. Panelists include T. Christine Stevens,
Saint Louis University; Susanna S. Epps, DePaul
University; Lisa Mantini, Oklahoma State University; and
Diane Hermann, University of Chicago.
Research and Outreach Focusing on the Mathematics Education of K-8 Latino/a Students, Monday, 9:00 a.m. to 10:20 a.m., Taliesin Sutton, University of Arizona and Laura Kondek McLeman, University of Arizona. Interest in the mathematics education for underrepresented groups has grown in recent years, due in part to the discouraging results in national tests at the K-12 level (e.g., NAEP) as well as the lack of minority groups choosing to major in mathematics at the college level. Researchers from the Center for the Mathematics Education of Latino/as provide some insight into these issues as they investigate the teaching and learning of mathematics to Latino/as at the elementary and middle school level. This work focuses not only on student understanding, but also on what roles parents and teachers play in furthering Latino/a students mathematics education. The panelists will discuss their work with preservice and inservice teachers, parents, and students, focusing specifically on how language and culture impacts the mathematics education of Latino/a students. The panel includes Richard Kitchen, University of New Mexico; and Virginia Horak, Laura Kondek McLeman, Jos Mara Menndez, and Taliesin Sutton, University of Arizona.
Using the New Technologies in Teaching Mathematics Invited Paper Session, Monday, 9:00 a.m. to noon, Lawrence C. Moore, Duke University, and Bruce W. Yoshiwara, Los Angeles Pierce College.
Classroom Voting Comes to the Mathematics Classroom, Monday, 10:45 a.m. to 12:05 p.m., Mark R. Parker, Carroll College, and Cheryl L. Olsen, Nebraska Wesleyan University. This session is dedicated to examining the pedagogy behind the popular new technology, to sharing lessons learned from practitioners, and to spotlighting another tool for engaging students in all levels of mathematics classrooms. We will start with a series of classroom voting questions to demonstrate different techniques: (1) vote with no discussion, (2) vote, peer discussion, revote and (3) peer discussion, vote. Voting will be accomplished via both colored paper as well as electronic personal response systems. Panelists will discuss their use of, and student responses to, classroom voting. The session will conclude with a question and answer period from the audience. The panelists have a depth of experience with the pedagogy of classroom voting. Kelly Cline,Carrroll College, is co-PI on the NSF-funded MathQUEST project to develop classroom voting questions for linear algebra and differential equations. David O. Lomen, University of Arizona, was part of the ConceptTests development team for the Harvard Calculus Consortium. Maria S. Terrell, Cornell University, was the PI of the NSF-funded GoodQuestions project to develop classroom voting questions for calculus. This session is sponsored by the Committee on the Teaching of Undergraduate Mathematics.
Creating and Implementing a Capstone Course in Mathematics for Preservice Secondary Teachers, Monday, 1:00 p.m. to 2:20 p.m., David W. Dempsey, Jacksonville State University, and Matthew Winsor, University of Texas at El Paso. Reports from the MAA and NCTM indicate that as a result of changes in the way mathematics is being taught in secondary schools, teachers need a more thorough preparation in mathematics (Conference Board of Mathematical Sciences (CBMS), 2001; Leitzel, 1991; NCTM, 1991, 2000). In response to the need for improving preservice teachers content knowledge, The Mathematical Education of Teachers (MET) publication charges mathematics departments with supporting the development of a capstone course sequence for teachers in which conceptual difficulties, fundamental ideas, and techniques of high school mathematics are examined from an advanced standpoint (CBMS, 2001, p. 39). This panel session will present several examples of capstone courses that have been implemented at different universities around the nation. Panel members will discuss how they created and implemented a capstone course, give examples of mathematics from capstone courses, and present research based on their capstone course. Time will be allowed for discussion. Panelists include Edward E. Aboufadel and Rebecca Walker, Grand Valley State University; Gail Burrill, Michigan State; Henry S. Kepner, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, David W. Dempsey, and Matthew Winsor.
The Political Dimension of Ethnomathematics, Monday, 1:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m., Amy Shell-Gellasch, Pacific Lutheran University, and Janet L. Beery, University of Redlands. Ethnomathematics is a growing area of both research and educational ideas. With its emphasis on cultural contexts for mathematical ideas, the study of ethnomathematics draws on diverse disciplines and has the potential to influence education and society in meaningful and even radical ways. Panelists will address the political and social realities and ramifications of conducting and communicating research in ethnomathematics. Panelists and their topics include Ubiratan D'Ambrosio, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil, Social justice and ethnomathematics; Ana Lúcia Braz Dias, Central Michigan University, The role of ethnomathematics in refuting deficit explanations for the achievement gap; and Arthur B. Powell, Rutgers University, Ethnomathematics: Traversing the digital divide. The panel is sponsored by the SIGMAA on History of Mathematics.
Putting Math on the Web the Correct Way, Monday, 1:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m., organized by Paulo Ney de Souza, UC Berkeley and Mathematical Sciences Publishers; William F. Hammond, SUNY at Albany; and Patrick D. F. Ion, Mathematical Reviews and W3C MathML working group. The correct way to place articles and course materials on the Web is to provide content in the modern form of HTML extended by MathML. Although this format cannot reasonably be written directly, there are readily available tools for generating it reliably. The session will feature presentations by members of the mathematical community who are now posting math to the Web in this correct way, emphasizing practicality and the reasons behind the claim of correctness. Cosponsored by the MAA and AMS.
Projects Supported by the NSF Division of Undergraduate Education, Monday, 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m., Jon W. Scott, Montgomery Community College. This poster session will feature principal investigators (PIs) presenting progress and outcomes from various NSF funded projects in the Division of Undergraduate Education and other NSF divisions supporting opportunities to improve undergraduate education. The poster session format will permit ample opportunity for attendees to engage in small group discussions with the PIs and to network with each other. Information about presenters and their projects will appear in the program.
Dueling Platforms: Java vs. Flash, Monday, 2:30 p.m. to 3:50 p.m., Mary L. Platt, Salem State College, and Lawrence C. Moore, Duke University. Trying to decide between learning Java and learning Flash? In this panel presentation a team of two representing Java and a corresponding team representing Flash will present work on a common assigned task. Each team will demonstrate their completed mathlet(s) and will describe the process of creating the mathlet(s) from scratch using their tool. Their accounts will include the time spent on the task, advantages of their approach, and problems encountered. Teams will also describe collections of programs that could be used as building blocks in larger collections. Each team will have a chance to comment on the other teams work. Time will be reserved for questions and comments from the audience. The session will be moderated by Mary L. Platt. Panelists include Thomas E. Leathrum, Jacksonville State University; Kyle T. Siegrist, University of Alabama, Huntsville; Doug Ensley, Shippensburg University; and Barbara Kaskosz, University of Rhode Island.
Sharing Residues from College Algebra Workshops, Monday, 5:45 p.m. to 7:45 p.m., organized by Donald B. Small, U.S. Military Academy, and William E. Haver, Virginia Commonwealth University. Participants from College Algebra Workshops (PREP, HBCUs, MAA's, etc.) will discuss their efforts to refocus college algebra courses based on their workshop experiences. Topics are expected to include visions, realities, efforts that worked, efforts that did not work, reflections on project work, hurdles encountered, suggestions on how to build support for change, etc. The session will also include discussions and exchanges of class activities, exercises, writing assignments, and tests.
The Proof is in the Pudding: Humorous Theater of the Mathematical Variety, Monday, 6:00 p.m. to 7:30 p.m., Colin C. Adams et al, Williams College. With several short theatrical pieces, A Difficult Delivery, Trial and Error, and A Killer Theorem, we will attempt a proof of the following proposition: Theorem. Math can be funny.
Conversations with Minority Scientists, Monday 6:30 p.m. to 8:00 p.m., organized by William A. Hawkins Jr, University of the District of Columbia; Robert E. Megginson, University of Michigan; Camille A. McKayle, University of the Virgin Islands; and Ivelisse M. Rubio, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras. This informal reception sponsored by the MAA Committee on Minority Participation will provide underrepresented minority students with the opportunity to meet other students and mathematicians to share experiences and opinions on different aspects of graduate school and career paths. Participants will receive information about summer research, internships and graduate study. Everybody is welcome to attend; it will be a great opportunity for programs to recruit minority students and for student-faculty networking. This session is cosponsored by the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI), Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics (IPAM), Institute for Mathematics and Its Applications (IMA), American Institute for Mathematics (AIM), and Statistical and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute (SAMSI).
Tones Are Real Functions, Rhythms Are Sequences, Monday, 7:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m., presented by Erich Neuwirth, University of Vienna. Musical tones (and chords) can be described mathematically as functions; the amplitude of the wave is a function of time. Therefore, real function can not only be visualized but also sonified. Rhythms, on the other hand, are discrete events and given times; therefore, a sequence of real numbers describes a rhythm. So, sequences also can be sonified. Quite a few computer tools are available to make symbolical representations of sounds and rhythms audible. In the presentation we will use some of these tools (as complex as Mathematica and as simple as a spreadsheet) to study some possibilities of the connection of mathematical concepts with auditory perception. One of the examples will be that the concept of partial sums is directly related to MIDI, a computer-based representation of music.
Becoming a Teacher of College Mathematics: Research on Mathematics Graduate Students' Professional Development, Tuesday, 9:00 a.m. to 10:20 a.m., organized by Kevin E. Charlwood, Washburn University, Larry Chrystal, University of California Irvine, and Natasha M. Speer, Michigan State University. During the past several decades there has been an increase in discussion about mathematics graduate student teaching assistants' (TAs) contributions to undergraduate instruction and their needs for teaching-related professional development. In addition to publication of resources for professional development activities and programs, educational researchers with interests in TAs have begun examining the factors that shape TAs' professional lives, their teaching practices, and their development as teachers of college mathematics. In this session several mathematics education researchers will discuss their work in this area. The session will include reports on the history of research on mathematics TAs, research on TAs' experiences as teachers, and examinations of the design of PD activities. Invited speakers will include those who have published their findings in this area. Panelists include Jason K. Belnap, Brigham Young University; Shandy Hauk, University of Northern Colorado; David E. Meel, Bowling Green State University, and Natasha M. Speer. The session is sponsored by the AMS-MAA Committee on Teaching Assistants and Part-time Instructors (TA/PTI).
A Quick Introduction to WeBWorK, a Web-Based Interactive Homework System, Tuesday, 1:00 p.m. to 2:20 p.m., Michael E. Gage, Arnold K. Pizer, and Vicki Roth, University of Rochester. WeBWorK is a program which allows students to do their mathematical homework interactively over the Web. It is currently being used by over 100 colleges, universities, and high schools in courses such as college algebra, pre-calculus to vector calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, complex variables, and statistics. WeBWorK can handle most homework problems typically used in such courses and is distributed with an extensive library of problems. With WeBWorK students get immediate feedback on the validity of their answers and have the opportunity to correct mistakes while they are still thinking about the problem. Students receive individualized versions of problems so instructors can encourage students to work together yet each student must develop an answer to their own version of the problem. Further WeBWorK provides automatic scoring of assignments. The session will provide an interactive introduction to WeBWorK. We will demonstrate how students use WeBWorK, how professors administer WeBWorK and will also discuss various assessment issues. Further information on WeBWorK and this session can be found at www.maa.org/webwork/.
Summer Research Programs, Tuesday, 2:30 p.m. to 3:50 p.m., William A. Hawkins Jr, MAA, and Robert E. Megginson, University of Michigan. The MAA has sponsored Summer Research Programs since 2003 with funding from NSF, NSA, and the Moody's Foundation. Each program consists of a small research group of four minority undergraduates mentored by a faculty member. Thirty-three sites had been funded as of summer 2006 and 12-13 were funded in summer 2007. Panelists will include Tommy Johnson and Jintae Kim from the Tuskegee University. These site directors will discuss their programs. There will be ample time for questions and discussion. Funding will be available for summer 2008. Additional information can be found on the NREUP website at www.maa.org/nreup. The session is sponsored by CMPM, SUMMA (Strengthening Underrepresented Minority Mathematics Achievement), and the Office of Minority Participation.
Current Issues in Actuarial Science Education, Tuesday, 5:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m. Robert E. Buck, Slippery Rock University; Bettye Anne Case, Florida State University; Matthew J. Hassett, Arizona State University; and Steve Paris, Florida State University. A diverse group of working actuaries, publishers, and actuarial educators bring new information from professional society committees, specialized publications initiatives, and academic department experience. The pace of change is faster than in most academic areas, and the session helps faculty adjust as quickly as possible not only to educate their students generally, but give the students good professional information and to determine upcoming curriculum change that may be necessary.
Hard Problems, Tuesday, 6:00 p.m. to 7:30 p.m., George P. Csicsery, Zala Films. The world premiere of a 90-minute documentary about the USA team's participation in the 2006 International Mathematical Olympiad in Slovenia will be shown. A question and answer session with Csicsery and a reception will follow the film presentation. Other films by Csicsery are N is a Number: A Portrait of Paul Erdős, porridge pulleys and Pi, and Invitation to Discover.
So You Want to Teach Environmental Math, Do You? A skit portraying the efforts to implement an environmental mathematics course at a mathematics department meeting, Tuesday, 7:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. Texts are appearing which attempt to teach mathematics in an environmental context, using mathematics to understand some of the most important problems facing us todayand hopefully contributing to solutions. In this one-act skit, the pros and cons of introducing an Environmental Math class are presented in a humorous fashion at a meeting of the mathematics faculty at Bogus U, revealing personalities that most of us will recognize. The skit is authored by Martin E. Walter, University of Colorado at Boulder, directed by Patricia Clark Kenschaft, Bloomfield College, and sponsored by the Environmental Mathematics SIGMAA.